Bibliography

Working Biblography
Agier, Michel. “Between War and City: Towards an Urban Anthropology of Refugee Camps.” Ethnography 3.3 (2002): 317-41. Sage.
Two elements constitute a new category of world population, that of 50 million displaced persons and refugees: on the one hand, so-called `dirty’ or `low-intensity’ wars, with the endless exoduses, suffering and multiple losses they provoke; on the other, the humanitarian response that accompanies them very closely. The camps are both the emblem of the social condition created by the coupling of war with humanitarian action, the site where it is constructed in the most elaborate manner, as a life kept at a distance from the ordinary social and political world, and the experimentation of the large-scale segregations that are being established on a planetary scale. Created in a situation of emergency as a protective device intended to provide for the physical, food and health safety of all kinds of survivors and fugitives from wars, refugee camps agglomerate tens of thousands of inhabitants for periods that generally last far beyond the duration of the emergency. In this article, we describe and analyse camps as an urban ethnographic case. Social and cultural complexities emerge with the formation of the novel sociospatial form of `city-camps’ in which new identities crystallize and subjectivation takes root.
Altbach, P. G. Comparative Higher Education: Knowledge, the University, and Development. Ablex Publishing Corporation, 1998. google. Web.
Higher education is increasingly international. The issues that affect universities in one country are important globally. There are a myriad of links among academic systems worldwide. Comparative Higher Education is the first book to systematically explore many of the most important implications of the globalization of higher education. It explores the links among universities, including foreign students and scholars, the impact of the Western higher education idea on universities throughout the world, and especially the current importance of American academic ideas worldwide, and the patterns of inequality among academic systems. Teachers and students are at the heart of the academic systems. Comparative Higher Education focuses on professors and students-especially the political involvement of both professors and students-and seeks to understand their roles in a comparative framework. The book concludes with a discussion of higher education development in the newly industrializing countries. These Pacific Rim nations are examples of how higher education has been used in the process of development. Comparative Higher Education reflects more than three decades of research in the field, and places key elements in the globalization of higher education in a useful framework. Worldwide examples are used to illustrate analyses of such key topics as international exchange, future trends in university development, the complex relationships among academic systems in the industrialized and developing countries, and related issues.
—. “Twisted Roots: The Western Impact on Asian Higher Education.” Higher Education 18.1 (1989): 9-29.
The long historical and contemporary impact of Western academic models, practices and orientations on Asian universities in such countries as India, Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore shaped the nature of higher education systems in these countries. The Japanese colonial impact in Korea and Taiwan is also significant and an interesting variation on the colonial theme. Several Asian countries, including Thailand, Japan and China were not formally colonized, but the mixture of influence on the academic institutions that has developed in these countries reflects considerable Western influence. Contemporary factors such as the international knowledge system, the numbers of students studying in Western nations and patterns of scientific interaction also have a major impact on the growth of universities in Asia.
Andina, M. “Education in Emergencies: Standards for Human Rights and Development.” Current Issues in Comparative Education 9.2 (2007): 6-19.
In December 2004, the Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies (MSEE) were released by the Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies. This study provides an analysis of how those standards were created and rationalized, drawing on the framework of world society theorists. Using content analysis, the MSEE, regional standards and website materials were analyzed to determine how the regional documents were reconciled at the international level and how the discourses of human rights and human capital were incorporated and added into the Minimum Standards. I find that the process of creating and rationalizing the MSEE fits within a predetermined script for international level agreements. In addition, the changes in discourse from the regional to the international level reflect the pervasiveness of global norms and their importance in providing legitimacy to international standards. These findings illustrate the need for practitioners who use the Minimum Standards as a practical tool to be aware of the framework within which they were created so as to better contextualize the contents and make appropriate localized decisions.
Black, R. “Putting Refugees in Camps.” Forced Migration Review 2 (1998): 4-7.
The article exposes why ‘camps’ are a negative solution for refugees by acknowledging the negative social, economic, environmental and health consequences which result from placing refugees in camps. It also highlights how this is not only negative for the refugees themselves but also frequently for the national populations and governments of receiving states.
Bourdieu, P., J. C. Passeron, and R. Nice. Reproduction in Education, Society, and Culture. Sage, 1990. Web.
The way in which the ruling ideas of a social system are related to structures of class, production and power, and how these are legitimated and perpetuated, is fundamental to the sociological project. In this second edition of this classic text, which includes a new introduction by Pierre Bourdieu, the authors develop an analysis of education (in its broadest sense, encompassing more than the process of formal education). They show how education carries an essentially arbitrary cultural scheme which is actually, though not in appearance, based on power. More widely, the reproduction of culture through education is shown to play a key part in the reproduction of the whole social system. The analysis is carried through not only in theoretical.
Brees, I. “Towards Sustainable Livelihoods: Vocational Training and Access to WOrk on the Thai-Burmese Border.” ZOA issue paper no. 1 (2008)
The ZOA issue papers are a series of short papers focusing on current significant educational issues and strategies within the refugee camps along the Thai-Burmese border. They are meant to provide brief, organised and coherent information, to generate questions and interest, and to add to public understanding of the challenges and positive outcomes of education in the refugee camps. They are written by researchers and practitioners and edited by an independent editor. The views expressed in the papers do not necessarily represent the views of ZOA Refugee Care Thailand.
Buckland, P. Reshaping the Future: Education and Postconflict Reconstruction. World Bank Publications, 2004. google. Web.
The aim of this book is to draw international attention to the key role that education can play in both preventing conflict and in reconstructing post-conflict societies. The author hopes to alert developing countries and donors alike to the devastating consequences of conflict on a country’s education systems and outcomes, as well to emphasize the importance of maximizing the opportunities to reform education systems presented by a reconstruction setting, adopting a long-term development perspective, and emphasizing equity and quality in the delivery of education services.
Bush, K. D., and D. Saltarelli. “The Two Faces of Education in Ethnic Conflict: Towards a Peacebuilding Education for Children.” (2000)
The Two Faces of Education in Ethnic Conflict challenges a widely-held assumption -that education is inevitably a force for good. While stressing the many stabilizing aspects of good quality education, editors Kenneth Bush and Diana Saltarelli show how education can be manipulated to drive a wedge between people, rather than drawing them closer together. After analyzing the increasing importance of ethnicity in contemporary conflicts, this Innocenti Insight outlines the negative and positive faces of education in situations of tension or violence, including the denial of education as a weapon of war (negative) and the cultivation of inclusive citizenship (positive). It emphasizes the need for peacebuilding education that goes further than the ‘add good education and stir’ approach, aiming to transform the very foundations of intolerance.
Chinapah, V. “With Africa for Africa Towards Quality Education for all.” Education 220 (2005).
Chutintaranond, S., and P. Cooperat. “Comparative Higher Education: Burma and Thailand.” Higher Education Policy 6.2 (1993): 15-9.
Higher education is increasingly international. The issues that affect universities in one country are important globally. There are a myriad of links among academic systems worldwide. Comparative Higher Education is the first book to systematically explore many of the most important implications of the globalization of higher education. It explores the links among universities, including foreign students and scholars, the impact of the Western higher education idea on universities throughout the world, and especially the current importance of American academic ideas worldwide, and the patterns of inequality among academic systems. Teachers and students are at the heart of the academic systems. Comparative Higher Education focuses on professors and students-especially the political involvement of both professors and students-and seeks to understand their roles in a comparative framework. The book concludes with a discussion of higher education development in the newly industrializing countries. These Pacific Rim nations are examples of how higher education has been used in the process of development. Comparative Higher Education reflects more than three decades of research in the field, and places key elements in the globalization of higher education in a useful framework. Worldwide examples are used to illustrate analyses of such key topics as international exchange, future trends in university development, the complex relationships among academic systems in the industrialized and developing countries, and related issues.
Crisp, J., C. Talbot, and D. B. Cipollone. Learning for a Future: Refugee Education in Developing Countries. United Nations Publications, Sales & Marketing Section, Room C-113, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. E-mail: unpbli@ unog. ch; Web site: http://www.un.org/pubs/sales.htm., 2001.
This collection of papers is the product of research conducted by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). The papers, which were presented at a 2001 workshop, “Refugee Education in Developing Countries: Policy and Practice,” are: “Education in Emergencies” (Margaret Sinclair), which reviews the rationale for education in situations of emergency and crisis, noting elements of education in response to several recent disasters; “On School Quality and Attainment” (James H. Williams), which examines research on education in developing countries to see what lessons can be learned for refugee education in care and maintenance situations; “Improving the Quality and Attainment in Refugee Schools: The Case of the Bhutanese Refugees in Nepal” (Timothy Brown), which highlights the lack of consistent donor funding to maintain even the low-cost models of refugee education supported by UNHCR; “Peace Education and Refugee Youth” (Marc Sommers), which examines the conceptual framework underlying education for peace; and “Vocational Training for Refugees: A Case Study from Tanzania” (Erik Lyby), which evaluates the ongoing formal and informal vocational training programs for Burundian refugees in Tanzania. (Papers contain references.)
Davies, L. Education and Conflict: Complexity and Chaos. Routledge, 2004.
First-place winner of the Society for Education Studies’ 2005 book prize, Education and Conflict is a critical review of education in an international context. Based on the author’s extensive research and experience of education in several areas afflicted by conflict, the book explores the relationship between schooling and social conflict and looks at conflict internal to schools. It posits a direct link between the ethos of a school and the attitudes of future citizens towards ‘others’. It also looks at the nature and purpose of peace education and war education, and addresses the role of gender and masculinity.
In five lucid, vigorously argued sections, the author brings this thought-provoking and original piece of work to life by:
· Setting out the terms of the debate, defining conflict and peace and outlining the relevant aspects of complexity theory for education
· Exploring the sources of conflict and their relations to schooling in terms of gender/masculinity, pluralism, nationalism and identity
· Focusing on the direct education/war interface
· Examining educational responses to conflict
· Highlighting conflict resolution within the school itself.
This is the first time that so many aspects of conflict and education have been brought together in one sustained argument. With its crucial exposure of the currently culpable role of formal schooling in maintaining conflict, this book will be a powerful and essential read for educational policy makers, managers, teachers and researchers dealing with conflict in their own contexts.
—. “Promoting Quality Education in Refugee Contexts: Supporting Teacher Development in Northern Ethiopia.” International Review of Education/Internationale Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft/Revue internationale l’éducation 53.5 (2007): 715-23.
The right to education of refugee and internally displaced children is enshrined in human rights laws and conventions; it is recognized that for children whose lives are affected by war, violence, displacement and the general disruption of normal life, education plays an important role in providing protection. This protection may be in the form of physical protection in a safe learning space away from dangers of the surrounding areas; it may be psychosocial protection in the form of interaction with peers and trusted adults with opportunities to be creative and to share concerns and ideas in different ways (Nicolai and Triplehorn 2003). However, the reality is that many refugee and displaced children are unable to attend school – and for those who do, the quality is very low and there are few opportunities for much more than rote learning. In some circumstances going to school may even put children – and especially girls – at risk. This brief article uses the example of the education program in a refugee camp in northern Ethiopia and the Healing Classrooms Initiative (HCI) intervention to highlight some teacher-related challenges in the pursuit of quality education in such contexts, and to provide examples of how these may be addressed.
—. “Certification Counts: Recognizing the Learning Attainments of Displaced and Refugee Students.” (2009). http://www.iiep.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Info_Services_Publications/pdf/2009/Certification.pdf.
Uninterrupted access to quality education is critical for children and youth displaced by natural and man-made disasters and is now increasingly recognized by humanitarian and development actors, including donors. A critical challenge for education authorities and service providers is to ensure the recognition, validation and certification of their learning attainments. Learners need acceptable proof of their studies and results to continue their studies or to access labour opportunities. However, in situations of displacement, it may not be possible for students to sit the official examinations of either home or host system. This study is one of the first critical, global analyses of certification issues for refugee and displaced students and is the result of a unique research partnership between IIEP-UNESCO, the University of Amsterdam, IRC [International Rescue Committee] and the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs. It presents a broad conceptual framework in which to consider issues of certification, illustrated by in depth case studies from around the world.
Miller-Grandvaux, Y. “Education and Fragility: A New Framework.” Journal of Education for International Development 4.1 (2009).
The author describes the evolution of USAID’s education framework for programming in fragile and conflict countries. Developed in 2006, it casts education in the forefront of programming priorities as a response to the risks or the reality of conflict in countries affected by potential or actual unrest. The framework revolves around three main questions: How does education contribute to fragility? How does fragility affect education? How can education mitigate fragility and promote stability?
The Education and Fragility Framework positions education at the center of four key areas of influence related to economic, governance, security and social domains. Education is viewed within the context of specific root causes of fragility or conflict such as organized violence, corruption, exclusion and elitism, transitional dynamics, insufficient capacity and public disengagement. Each of these issues can be addressed through education. In all cases, the premise is that if education can contribute to a given driver of fragility, it can also contribute to finding its remedy and thus to promoting stability.
Pigozzi, M. J. “Education in Emergencies and for Reconstruction: A Developmental Approach.” New York: UNICEF, available at http://www.unicef.org/girlseducation/files/EducEmerg.pdf, last accessed 1.07 (1999): 06.
This document aims to provide programme guidance to those faced with the challenge of addressing education in emergency situations. It has been developed in cooperation with UNICEF colleagues in Emergency Operations and field offices, and with education advisors and others concerned with the impact of emergencies on education. Professional colleagues from sister UN organizations such as UNESCO and UNHCR, bilateral agencies, and non-governmental organizations such as Save the Children and the Norwegian Refugee Council have also provided valuable information. This is meant to be an evolving guide, changing as experience and better knowledge contribute to improved practice in emergency situations.
Preston, R. “The Provision of Education to Refugees in Places of Temporary Asylum: Some Implications for Development.” Comparative Education 27.1 (1991): 61-81.
Reports on the provision of education to refugees in places of temporary asylum. Educational requirements of refugees who experienced involuntary international displacement; Status of research into refugee education; Education in temporary settlement; Nature of educational demand and provision; Issues associated with the provision of education and training to refugees.
Purnell, Simon, and Aranya Kengkunchorn. “Taking Learning further: A Research Paper on Refugee Access to Higher Education.” (2008) http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/ZOA-Taking_Learning_Further.pdf.
This survey was carried out to provide stakeholders with a comprehensive overview of the options for and implications of implementing the Higher Education programme.
This evaluation has examined Higher Education in the following areas:
1) The ways that refugee students can access opportunities to Higher Education
2) The impact that this would have on the education provided in the camps
3) The role that accreditation and accredited qualifications would play in the education system in the camps
4) The requirements to deliver a Higher Education programme for stakeholders
5) The risks and threats that exist for the delivery and impact of the Higher Education programme
Shor, I., and P. Freire. A Pedagogy for Liberation: Dialogues on Transforming Education. Bergin & Garvey, 1987.
Two world renowned educators, Paulo Freire and Ira Shor, speak passionately about the role of education in various cultural and political arenas. They demonstrate the effectiveness of dialogue in action as a practical means by which teachers and students can become active participants in the learning process. In a lively exchange, the authors illuminate the problems of the educational system in relation to those of the larger society and argue for the pressing need to transform the classroom in both Third and First World contexts. Shor and Freire illustrate the possibilities of transformation by describing their own experiences in liberating the classroom from its traditional constraints. They demonstrate how vital the teacher’s role is in empowering students to think critically about themselves and their relation, not only to the classroom, but to society. For those readers seeking a liberatory approach to education, these dialogues will be a revelation and a unique summary. For all those convinced of the need for transformation, this book shows the way.
Teferra, D., and P. G. Altbach. “African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook.” (2003).
Since their founding, African colleges and universities have faced numerous challenges. While most are legacies of colonialism, these institutions are affected by particular conditions and realities in their home countries. African Higher Education is the first comprehensive survey of all aspects and dimensions of higher education in Africa today. It includes a historical overview of higher education resources in Africa; descriptions of the size, scope, and nature of higher education in each African nation; and analyses of current and timely topics, such as the state of private higher education, gender issues, distance education, information and communication technologies, and university/state relations. The work concludes with an extensive bibliography of doctoral dissertations and other resources on the subject, relevant for policy-makers, development agencies, and university researchers, teachers, and administrators worldwide.
Van Den Bor, W., and J. C. M. Shute. “Higher Education in the Third World: Status Symbol Or Instrument for Development?” Higher Education 22.1 (1991): 1-15.
Southern countries have invested rather heavily in higher education. Yet, their development is severely hampered by problems originating from both national policy conditions and institutional weaknesses. This paper presents a critical analysis of these problems.
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